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Disease Profile

Striatonigral degeneration infantile

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

1-9 / 1 000 000

US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset

All ages





Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.


Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)

Striatal degeneration familial; Infantile bilateral striatal necrosis; IBSN;


Congenital and Genetic Diseases; Nervous System Diseases


The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.

Orpha Number: 1576

Infantile bilateral striatal necrosis (IBSN) comprises several syndromes of bilateral symmetric spongy degeneration of the caudate nucleaus, putamen and globus pallidus characterized by developmental regression, choreoathetosis and dystonia progressing to spastic quadriparesis. IBSN can be familial or sporadic (see these terms).

The prevalence of the sporadic form has been estimated at 1-9/1,000,000 and prevalence of the familial form has been estimated at less than 1/1,000,000.

Clinical description
The age of onset of familial IBSN varies between 7 months and 15 months, whereas sporadic IBSN can occur any time from the neonatal period through childhood and even in adolescence. Clinical features include choreoathetosis, dystonia, rigidity, spasticity, dysphagia, optic atrophy, intellectual deficit, developmental regression of motor and verbal skills, failure to thrive, myoclonus, quadriparesis, cerebellar ataxia and nystagmus. The familial form has an insidious onset and a slowly progressive downhill course, while the sporadic form is associated with abrupt neurologic dysfunction following an acute systemic febrile illness such as a mycoplasma, measles or streptococcus infection.

Autosomal recessive IBSN is caused by mutation in the NUP62 gene (19q13.33) and mitochondrial IBSN is caused by mutation in the ATP synthase-6 gene (MTATP6).

Diagnostic methods
Diagnosis is based on clinical observation of choreoathetoid movements of the face, trunk and extremities and evidence of basal ganglia degeneration on CT and MRI images.

Differential diagnosis
Differential diagnoses include Wilson's disease, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, Leigh disease, juvenile Huntington chorea, methylmalonic aciduria, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency, glutaric acidemia I (see these terms), carbon monoxide intoxication, small vessel arteritis and trauma.

Antenatal diagnosis
Antenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling is offered to families of affected patients.

Genetic counseling
Familial IBSN can be inherited as an autosomal recessive or mitochondrial disorder.

Management and treatment
There is no standard therapy for familial IBSN. Treatment with oral biotin has been observed to slow disease progress initially. Treatment for the sporadic form is based on treatment of the causal infection.

Prognosis for the familial form is usually poor with patients progressing to spastic quadriparesis followed by death, usually due to infection. For the sporadic form, prognosis is variable, with either gradual improvement in symptoms and complete recovery, observed after recovery from the infection, or severe neurological sequelae.

Visit the Orphanet disease page for more resources.


This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
Percent of people who have these symptoms is not available through HPO
Autosomal recessive inheritance
Developmental regression
Loss of developmental milestones
Mental deterioration in childhood

[ more ]

Developmental stagnation
Poor swallowing
Swallowing difficulties
Swallowing difficulty

[ more ]

Failure to thrive
Faltering weight
Weight faltering

[ more ]

Intellectual disability
Mental deficiency
Mental retardation
Mental retardation, nonspecific

[ more ]

Optic atrophy
Pendular nystagmus
Involuntary muscle stiffness, contraction, or spasm


Making a diagnosis for a genetic or rare disease can often be challenging. Healthcare professionals typically look at a person’s medical history, symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory test results in order to make a diagnosis. The following resources provide information relating to diagnosis and testing for this condition. If you have questions about getting a diagnosis, you should contact a healthcare professional.

Testing Resources

  • The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) provides information about the genetic tests for this condition. The intended audience for the GTR is health care providers and researchers. Patients and consumers with specific questions about a genetic test should contact a health care provider or a genetics professional.

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

In-Depth Information

  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Striatonigral degeneration infantile. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.