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Disease Profile

Hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.


US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset

All ages





Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.


Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable



The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.

Orpha Number: 206428

Hypoxanthineguanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder of purine metabolism associated with uric acid overproduction and a continuum spectrum of neurological manifestations depending on the degree of the enzyme deficiency.

Prevalence of HPRT deficiency is unknown but estimated prevalence for Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS; see this term) is estimated between 1/380,000 and 1/235,000 live births. Males are generally affected and heterozygous females are carriers (usually asymptomatic).

Clinical description
Onset occurs during infancy. Two forms of the disease have been described: LNS, the most severe form, with a complete enzyme deficiency, and Lesch-Nyhan variants with partial HPRT deficiency. LNS is characterized by uric acid overproduction-related symptoms associated with urolithiasis and gout, severe neurological manifestations, hematological disturbances, and compulsive self-injurious behaviour. LNS patients have a limited life expectancy. In the less severely affected LNS variants, also termed Kelley-Seegmiller syndrome (KSS; see this term), uric acid overproduction-related symptoms are prominent, neurological manifestations are usually unapparent, compulsive self-injurious behaviour is absent and patients have a normal life expectancy.

Inheritance is X-linked recessive and HPRT deficiency results from mutations in the HPRT1 gene (Xq26).

Visit the Orphanet disease page for more resources.

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

In-Depth Information

  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.