Rare Immunology News

Disease Profile

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

Unknown

Age of onset

#N/A

ICD-10

#N/A

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Other names (AKA)

Eosinophilic gastritis; Eosinophilic enteritis; Eosinophilic gastroenteropathy;

Categories

Digestive Diseases

Summary

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis occurs when certain white blood cells known as eosinophils get into the digestive tract and cause damage. Symptoms of eosinophilic gastroenteritis usually start in adulthood and may include stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, and the inability to absorb nutrients from food. Sometimes, a blockage in the intestines occurs. In most people, symptoms occur from time to time and may go away completely with treatment. The exact cause of eosinophilic gastroenteritis is unknown, but it may be due to an abnormal response of the immune system to food allergies. Diagnosis is based on the symptoms, a clinical exam, laboratory tests, and by excluding other more common conditions. Treatment is focused on managing the symptoms and includes diet and medication.[1][2][3][4][5]

Symptoms

The following list includes the most common signs and symptoms in people with eosinophilic gasteroenteritis. These features may be different from person to person. Some people may have more symptoms than others and symptoms can range from mild to severe. This list does not include every symptom or feature that has been described in this condition.

Symptoms of eosinophilic gastroenteritis may include:[1][3][4]

Symptoms can occur at any age but they usually develop between ages 30 and 50. Children with eosinophilic gastroenteritis may have problems with growth due to malabsorption. In general, symptoms tend to occur periodically, and may go away completely with treatment.[1][3][4]

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
HPO ID
80%-99% of people have these symptoms
Eosinophilia
High blood eosinophil count
0001880
30%-79% of people have these symptoms
Abdominal pain
Pain in stomach
Stomach pain

[ more ]

0002027
Allergic rhinitis
Hay fever
Hayfever

[ more ]

0003193
Anemia
Low number of red blood cells or hemoglobin
0001903
Dysphagia
Poor swallowing
Swallowing difficulties
Swallowing difficulty

[ more ]

0002015
Elevated C-reactive protein level
0011227
Hypoalbuminemia
Low blood albumin
0003073
Steatorrhea
Fat in feces
0002570
Vomiting
Throwing up
0002013
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Ascites
Accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
0001541
Asthma
0002099
Atopic dermatitis
0001047
Edema
Fluid retention
Water retention

[ more ]

0000969
Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate
High ESR
0003565
Hematochezia
Rectal bleeding
0002573
Protein-losing enteropathy
0002243
Weight loss
0001824

Cause

The exact cause of eosinophilic gastroenteritis is unknown. It is thought that an abnormal immune reaction to a food allergy, along with genetic factors, may contribute to the development of this condition.[1][2][4]

Diagnosis

Diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis is based on the symptoms, clinical exam, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include blood tests for immunoglobulins, red and white blood cell levels, and infections. Imaging studies may include a CT scan and an endoscopy to look at the stomach and intestines. It may also be necessary to do a take a small piece of tissue from the intestine to exam under the microscope (biopsy). It is often necessary to exclude other more conditions before diagnosing eosinophilic gastroenteritis.[1][2]

Treatment

Treatment of eosinophilic gastroenteritis is focused on managing the symptoms. In most cases, dietary restrictions and medications can improve the symptoms of this condition. In some people, surgery may be necessary to remove an intestinal blockage.[2][3][5]

Specialists involved in the care of someone with eosinophilic gastroenteritis may include:

  • Allergy and asthma specialist
  • Gastroenterologist
  • Infectious disease specialist
  • Dietician/nutritionist

Organizations

Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

Organizations Supporting this Disease

    Organizations Providing General Support

      Learn more

      These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

      Where to Start

      • The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.

        In-Depth Information

        • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
        • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
        • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
        • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Eosinophilic gastroenteritis. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

          References

          1. Sunkara T, Rawla P, Yarlagadda KS, Gaduputi V. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: diagnosis and clinical perspectives. Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 2019; 12:239-253. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31239747.
          2. Memon RJ, Savliwala MN. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. June 28, 2020; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31613509.
          3. Gonsalves N. Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2019; 57(2):272-285. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30903439.
          4. Zhang M, Li Y. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: A state-of-the-art review. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017; 32(1):64-72. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27253425.
          5. Pineton de Chambrun G, Dufour G, Tassy B, et al. Diagnosis, Natural History and Treatment of Eosinophilic Enteritis: a Review. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2018; 20(8):37. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29968127.

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