Rare Immunology News

Disease Profile

Colpocephaly

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

Unknown

Age of onset

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ICD-10

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Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Categories

Congenital and Genetic Diseases

Summary

Colpocephaly is a congenital brain abnormality in which the occipital horns the posterior or rear portion of the lateral ventricles (cavities) of the brain are larger than normal because white matter in the posterior cerebrum has failed to develop or thicken.[1]

Symptoms

Colpocephaly is characterized by a small head circumference and in many cases, intellectual disability.[2] Other signs and symptoms may include movement abnormalities, muscle spasms, and seizures.[1] Poor vision, speech and language difficulties, deafness, and chorioretinitis have been described in individual cases.[2] Cases of people with colpocephaly and normal neurological and motor development have also been described.[2][3]

Cause

Researchers believe that the disorder results from some kind of disturbance in the fetal environment that occurs between the second and sixth months of pregnancy.[1] The underlying causes of colpocephaly are multiple and diverse. Causes include chromosomal anomalies such as trisomy-8 mosaicism and trisomy-9 mosaicism; intrauterine infection such as toxoplasmosis; perinatal anoxic-ischemic encephalopathy; and maternal drug ingestion during early pregnancy, such as corticosteroids, salbutamol, and theophylline. In addition, a familial occurrence of colpocephaly has been noted in three reports. A genetic origin with an autosomal recessive or X-linked recessive inheritance was suggested in these familial cases.[3]

Treatment

There is no definitive treatment for colpocephaly. Anticonvulsant medications are often prescribed to prevent seizures, and doctors rely on exercise therapies and orthopedic appliances to reduce shrinkage or shortening of muscles.[1]

Organizations

Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

Organizations Supporting this Disease

    Learn more

    These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

    Where to Start

      In-Depth Information

      • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
      • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Colpocephaly. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

        References

        1. NINDS Colpocephaly Information Page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Colpocephaly-Information-Page.
        2. Colpocephaly. Fetus.net. 1992; https://sonoworld.com/TheFetus/page.aspx?id=100. Accessed 2/1/2008.
        3. Puvabanditsin S, Garrow E, Ostrerov Y, Trucanu D, Ilic M, Cholenkeril JV. Colpocephaly: A Case Report. Am J Perinatol. 2006 Jul; 23(5):295-7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=16799912.

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