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Disease Profile

Amish Nemaline Myopathy

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.
<1 / 1 000 000

< 331

US Estimated

< 514

Europe Estimated

Age of onset

Neonatal

ICD-10

G71.2

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Other names (AKA)

Amish Nemaline Myopathy; ANM; NEM5;

Categories

Congenital and Genetic Diseases; Nervous System Diseases

Summary

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.
orphanet

Orpha Number: 98902

Definition
A type of nemaline myopathy (NM) only observed in several families of the Amish community.

Clinical description
It has a neonatal onset and patients present with hypotonia associated to contractures, a severe pectus carinatum, and tremor that subsides after 2-3 months of age.

Etiology
TNNT1 (19q13.4) is the causative gene of the Amish NM.

Genetic counseling
Transmission follows an autosomal recessive pattern.

Prognosis
Life expectancy rarely exceeds 2 years as a consequence of severe respiratory insufficiency.

Visit the Orphanet disease page for more resources.

Symptoms

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
HPO ID
30%-79% of people have these symptoms
EMG: myopathic abnormalities
0003458
Hip contracture
0003273
Motor delay
0001270
Neonatal hypotonia
Low muscle tone, in neonatal onset
0001319
Pectus carinatum
Pigeon chest
0000768
Progressive muscle weakness
0003323
Proximal amyotrophy
Wasting of muscles near the body
0007126
Shoulder flexion contracture
0003044
Tremor
0001337
Type 1 muscle fiber predominance
0003803
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Respiratory insufficiency due to muscle weakness
Decreased lung function due to weak breathing muscles
0002747
Percent of people who have these symptoms is not available through HPO
Autosomal recessive inheritance
0000007
Decreased hip abduction
0003184
Delayed gross motor development
Delayed motor skills
0002194
Myopathy
Muscle tissue disease
0003198
Nemaline bodies
0003798
Neonatal onset
0003623
Respiratory insufficiency
Respiratory impairment
0002093
Z-band streaming
0020203

Diagnosis

Making a diagnosis for a genetic or rare disease can often be challenging. Healthcare professionals typically look at a person’s medical history, symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory test results in order to make a diagnosis. The following resources provide information relating to diagnosis and testing for this condition. If you have questions about getting a diagnosis, you should contact a healthcare professional.

Testing Resources

  • The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) provides information about the genetic tests for this condition. The intended audience for the GTR is health care providers and researchers. Patients and consumers with specific questions about a genetic test should contact a health care provider or a genetics professional.

Treatment

The resources below provide information about treatment options for this condition. If you have questions about which treatment is right for you, talk to your healthcare professional.

Management Guidelines

  • Orphanet Emergency Guidelines is an article which is expert-authored and peer-reviewed that is intended to guide health care professionals in emergency situations involving this condition.

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

Where to Start

  • The Muscular Dystrophy Association has developed a resource called "Facts About Myopathies" that discusses commonly asked questions regarding myopathies. Click on the link above to view this information page.

In-Depth Information

  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Amish Nemaline Myopathy. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.