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Disease Profile

ADCY5-related dyskinesia

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

<1 / 1 000 000

US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset






Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)

Dyskinesia, familial, with facial myokymia; FDFM; Familial dyskinesia and facial myokymia


Congenital and Genetic Diseases; Nervous System Diseases


ADCY5-related dyskinesia is a movement disorder that is characterized by several different types of involuntary movements. Affected people generally develop sudden jerks, twitches, tremors, muscle tensing, and/or writhing movements between infancy and late adolescence. These abnormal movements are often continuous during waking hours and may persist during sleep, resulting in disrupted sleep cycles. The arms, legs, neck and face are most commonly involved. Hypotonia and delayed motor milestones (i.e. crawling, walking) may also be present in more severely affected infants. As the name suggests, ADCY5-related dyskinesia is caused by changes (mutations) in the ADCY5 gene. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Treatment is based on the signs and symptoms present in each person and may include medications, physical therapy, and occupational therapy.[1][2]


This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
80%-99% of people have these symptoms
Facial myokymia
Involuntary facial quivering
Orofacial dyskinesia
30%-79% of people have these symptoms
Difficulty walking
Difficulty in walking
Difficulty articulating speech
Limb hypertonia
Increased muscle tone of arm or leg
Muscular hypotonia of the trunk
Low muscle tone in trunk
Resting tremor
Tremor at rest
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Congestive heart failure
Cardiac failure
Cardiac failures
Heart failure

[ more ]

Delayed gross motor development
Delayed motor skills
Dilated cardiomyopathy
Stretched and thinned heart muscle
Increased reflexes
Motor delay
Percent of people who have these symptoms is not available through HPO
Excessive, persistent worry and fear
Autosomal dominant inheritance
Disorder of involuntary muscle movements
Juvenile onset
Signs and symptoms begin before 15 years of age


Making a diagnosis for a genetic or rare disease can often be challenging. Healthcare professionals typically look at a person’s medical history, symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory test results in order to make a diagnosis. The following resources provide information relating to diagnosis and testing for this condition. If you have questions about getting a diagnosis, you should contact a healthcare professional.

Testing Resources

  • The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) provides information about the genetic tests for this condition. The intended audience for the GTR is health care providers and researchers. Patients and consumers with specific questions about a genetic test should contact a health care provider or a genetics professional.


    Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

    Organizations Supporting this Disease

      Learn more

      These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

      Where to Start

      • Genetics Home Reference (GHR) contains information on ADCY5-related dyskinesia . This website is maintained by the National Library of Medicine.

        In-Depth Information

        • GeneReviews provides current, expert-authored, peer-reviewed, full-text articles describing the application of genetic testing to the diagnosis, management, and genetic counseling of patients with specific inherited conditions.
        • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
        • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 
        • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
        • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss ADCY5-related dyskinesia . Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

          Selected Full-Text Journal Articles


            1. ADCY5-related dyskinesia. Genetics Home Reference. August 2017; https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/adcy5-related-dyskinesia.
            2. Chris Shaw, BA, Fuki Hisama, MD, Jennifer Friedman, MD, and Thomas D Bird, MD. ADCY5-Related Dyskinesia. GeneReviews. December 2015; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK263441/.